Figures of Speech Based on Association or Substitution can be divided into Metonymy and Synedoche.
Metonymy is a figure in which a thing is spoken of not by its own name, but by the name of some conspicious accompaniment.
Examples of Metonymy:
-Please addresses the chair.
-From the cradle to the grave, life is a struggle.
Metonymy, in fact, means ‘a chance of name’ and thus it has the following varieties:
a. The sign for the person or thing symbolized
-You must addresses the chair.
-From the craddle to the grave, life is a struggle.
-The case was heard by the full bench.
-He contrived to lower the prestige of the crown.
b. The instrument for the agent
-The pen is mightier than the sword.
-The smooth tongue wins favour.
-Sceptre and crown must tumble down.
-He set up parliaments by the stroke of his pen.
c. The container for the thing contained
-The conquerers smote the city.
-My purse is exhausted.
-The whole city went out to see the victorious general.
-She was fond of dress and had an extensive wardrobe.
d. An effect for a cause or a cause for an effect
-Swiftly flies the feathered death.
-We rested beneath the shade.
-The bright death quivered at the captive’s throat.
-May a favourable speed ruffle the mirrored mast of the ship.
e. The author for his works
-We have read Milton.
-He has never read Homer.
-Let us study Shakespheare.
-We are having a test on Dickens.
f. The name of a feeling or passion for its objects
-He is our pride.
-Chemistry is my aversion.
-You are the hope of my family.
-He is the delight of the village.
Synedoche is a figure by which one noun is changed for another of a similar meaning.
Examples of Synecdoche:
-All hands to the well.
-Give us our daily bread.
In other words, Synecdoche means the understanding of one thing by means of another:
a. Part for the whole
-All hands to the pump.
-Give us this day our daily bread.
-Uneasy lies the head that wears a crown.
-No useless coffin enclosed his breast.
b. Whole for the part
-Give the message to every creature.
-The lavish moisture of the melting year. (summer)
-Thine the full harvest of the golden year. (autumn)
-The vessel anchored in the harbour.
c. An individual substituted for a class.
-He is the Newton of the century.
-Helen of troy was the venus of the greek world.
-Wake the purple year. (spring)
-A Solomon is coming to judgement.
d. Concrete for Abstract
-There is a mixture of the tiger and the ape in the character of that man.
-Seeing him sorrowing, all the mother rose in her heart.
-His breast with all sage, the hero and the patriot burned.
-I do the most that friendship can; I hate the viceroy, love the man
e. Abstract for Concrete
-All the rank and fashion came out to see the sight.
-The authorities put an end to the tumult.
-Youth is thoughtless.
-Her ladyship is out of town.
f. Material for the thing made
-The marble speaks.
-God and silver have I none.
-He was buried under this stone.
-He gave the man a few coppers to get rid of him.