Sunday, 31 May 2015

Figures of Speech Based on Contrast Examples

Figures of Speech Based on Contrast Examples - Figures of Speech based on contrast can be divided into seven. They are Antithesis, Epigram, Paradox, Oxymoron, Irony, Euphemism, and Litotes.

Antithesis is a figure in which a striking opposition of contrast of words or feelings is made in the same sentence.

Examples of Antithesis:
-Man proposes, God disposes.
-Men must work and women must weep.

Epigram is a brief pointed saying often in poetical from, frequently introducing antithetical ideas which excite surprise and arrrest attention.

Examples of Epigram:
-Familiraty breeds contempt.
-A gift is never little.

Paradox is a figure of speech in which a truth is conveyed under the form of an apparent absurdity of contradiction.

Exampes of Paradox:
-The child is father of the man.
-More haste, less speed.

Oxymoron is a figure by which two contradictory qualities are predicted at once of the same thing. (An adjective is added to a word of quite a contrary meaning)

Examples of Oxymoron:
-She accepted it as the kind cruelty of the surgeon’s knife.
-He is an honorable villain.

Irony is the use of words, the natural meaning of which is just the opposite of what is intended to be expressed.

Examples of Irony:
-What a fine friend to forsake others in trouble.
-i fear I wrong the honourable men whose actions have put me into trouble.

Euphemism is a figure by means of which we speak in pleasing or favourable terms of an unpleasant or bad thing.

Examples of Euphemism:
-He has gone to an unreturned land.
-He was a gentleman of the roads.

Litotes is the use of a negative to express a strong affirmative of the opposite kind.

Examples of Litotes:
-He was not all unhappy.
-She is not the ugly duckling of her family.

Figures of Speech Based on Construction or Arrangement of Words

Figures of Speech Based on Construction or Arrangement of WordsFigures of Speech Based on Construction or Arrangement of Words is divided into seven. They are Interrogation, Exclamation, Climax, Anti-Climax, Hyperbole, Transferred Epithet, and Tautology.

Interrogation is a statement thrown into the form of a question for rhetorical effect.

Examples of Interrogation:
-Can flattery soothe the duil cold ear of Death?
-Can two walk together except they be agreed.

Exclamation is a figure in which the exclamatory form is used to draw greater attention to a point than a mere bald statement of it could do.

Examples of Exclamation:
-What a piece of work is man!
-How are the mighty fallen!

Climax is afigure in which the scenes rises by successive steps to what is more and more important and impressive.

Examples of Climax:
-I came, I saw, I conquered.
-She growls,she hisses, she stings.

Anti-Climax is a figure that significances a descent from the higher to the lower.

Examples of Anti-Climax:
-The soldiers fought for glory and a shilling a day.
-For thy sake, my love, I would do anything but die.

Hyperbole is a greatly eaggerated statement (used mainly for effect but not intended to be taken literally).

Eamples of Hyperbole:
-He would draw the stage with tears.
-I was bored to death by his ceaseless chatter.

Transferred Epithet
Transferred Epithet is a figure in which an epithet belongs to some other words closely connected with it.

Examples of Transferred Epithet:
-He passed a sleepless night.
-he tossed from side to side on his restless pillow.

Tautology is the use of unnecessary words to express the same idea.

Examples of Tautology:
-The one sole survivor of the wreck was an American.
-he dwelt in a onely isolation.

Friday, 22 May 2015

Ecclesiastical Characters of Canterbury tales

Brief Summary
Twenty nine pilgrims gathered in “Tabbard” INN. They werepreparing to do pilgrimage in the following morning becuase it was almost dark and the roads were full of dangers. With the suggestion of the owner of “Tabbard” INN, they all agreed to tell two stories on the way to Canterbury an two other stories on the way back to ‘tabbard” INN. Those who could tell the best stories would be given reward; free of charge to stay, eat and drink in ‘tabbard” INN. The followings are brief description of five ecclesiastical characters of the tales.

Ecclesiastical Characters of Canterbury tales

1. Parson
The parson was poor in a wordly sense but rich in holy thoughts and works. He was man of learning. Hr truly preached the gospel of Christ, and sincerely looked after the spiritual welfare of his flock. He never shirked visiting his parishioners becase of rain or thunder, sickness or trouble. He visited the high and the low, and he went to them on foot with a staff in his hand. He set a noble example for his parishioners by actually practicing what he preached.
He lived in his own parish and looked after his parishioners to prevent them from falling under the influence of the enemies of the church. He was a true priest, not a businessman aiming at money. This parson never excommunicated anybody in order to force payment of the tithes due to him. On the contrary, he helped his parishioner with money from collection of tithes.
The parson was kind-hearted and wonderfully industrious. He was not callous or haughty or contemptuous in dealing with sinners; on the contrary, he was soft spoken and sympathetic n giving them advie and instruction.

2. Monk
Hunting was indeed the monk’s favoruite pastime. According to the text hunters were not holy men, but he did not care about it and he did not hide his irritation with those who objected to it. he did not confine himself to the cloister, he did not read book and he did not work with his hand. He even defied St. Augustine’s directive that physical labor was necessary for monk. This monk did not believe that the world could be served either by hard study or by hard labor. Tehe monk kept swift greyhounds for hunting purposes. All his pleasure lay in tracking and hunting harers. Worldliness and fine living of the monk were greatly emphasized. The monk’s costume and equipment were most lavish. He had a large number of fine horses, when he went out the jingling of his horses’ bells couldbe heard from the distance.

3. Friar
This friar had performed a large number of marriage of young women at his own cost (probably they had been mistress). He was familiar to all the rich farmers and also worthy women in town. If he got enough money from the sinners he would say the sinners were repentant. He was of the opinion that the sinners instead of shedding tears of repentance and offering prayers should give money to the poor friar.
The friar used fair language to win the favour of women and where language failed, he tried to win them over with ornamental knives and pins. The friar knew the taverns and barmaids of every town far better than he new the lepers or beggars.

4. Summoner
Physical appearances of the summoner was ugly. He had pimpled-face, a fire-red complexion, scabby brows, and shaggy beard. No medicine or cream could cure him of thepimples or the lumps on his cheeks. He was fond of garlics, onions and leeks and drinking strong wine, red as blood.
The summoner was morally corrupt. He would allow a fellow to keep a mistress for twelve month just for a quart of wine. And he could also take advantage of a girl (that is, he would seduce a girl if he got the opportunity). He taught people not to feels afraid of arch-deacon’s curse (excommunication) because he expressed the view tha by paying a good sum of money,  fellow could get released from that curse.

5. Pardoner
The medieval pardoner had as his main occupation the selling of indulgences 9that is, the freedom or remission of punishment to repentant sunners) but he also sold religious relics and did some preaching. Indulgences were of varying degrees and were sold for various pricers. Although the money gained through them was meant to be handed over to the church, dishonest pardoners managedto keep it for themselves. This pardoner had a bag full to the brim with indulgences which he claimed to have brought directly from the pope at Rome. He also had in his possession several articles which he claimed holy relics.   

Thursday, 21 May 2015

Figures of Speech Based on Association or Substitution

Figures of Speech Based on Association or Substitution can be divided into Metonymy and Synedoche.

Metonymy is a figure in which a thing is spoken of not by its own name, but by the name of some conspicious accompaniment.

Examples of Metonymy:
-Please addresses the chair.
-From the cradle to the grave, life is a struggle.

Metonymy, in fact, means ‘a chance of name’ and thus it has the following varieties:

a. The sign for the person or thing symbolized
-You must addresses the chair.
-From the craddle to the grave, life is a struggle.
-The case was heard by the full bench.
-He contrived to lower the prestige of the crown.

b. The instrument for the agent
-The pen is mightier than the sword.
-The smooth tongue wins favour.
-Sceptre and crown must tumble down.
-He set up parliaments by the stroke of his pen.

c. The container for the thing contained
-The conquerers smote the city.
-My purse is exhausted.
-The whole city went out to see the victorious general.
-She was fond of dress and had an extensive wardrobe.

d. An effect for a cause or a cause for an effect
-Swiftly flies the feathered death.
-We rested beneath the shade.
-The bright death quivered at the captive’s throat.
-May a favourable speed ruffle the mirrored mast of the ship.

e. The author for his works
-We have read Milton.
-He has never read Homer.
-Let us study Shakespheare.
-We are having a test on Dickens.

f. The name of a feeling or passion for its objects
-He is our pride.
-Chemistry is my aversion.
-You are the hope of my family.
-He is the delight of the village.

Synedoche is a figure by which one noun is changed for another of a similar meaning.

Examples of Synecdoche:
-All hands to the well.
-Give us our daily bread.

In other words, Synecdoche means the understanding of one thing by means of another:

a. Part for the whole
-All hands to the pump.
-Give us this day our daily bread.
-Uneasy lies the head that wears a crown.
-No useless coffin enclosed his breast.

b. Whole for the part
-Give the message to every creature.
-The lavish moisture of the melting year. (summer)
-Thine the full harvest of the golden year. (autumn)
-The vessel anchored in the harbour.

c. An individual substituted for a class.
-He is the Newton of the century.
-Helen of troy was the venus of the greek world.
-Wake the purple year. (spring)
-A Solomon is coming to judgement.

d. Concrete for Abstract
-There is a mixture of the tiger and the ape in the character of that man.
-Seeing him sorrowing, all the mother rose in her heart.
-His breast with all sage, the hero and the patriot burned.
-I do the most that friendship can; I hate the viceroy, love the man

e. Abstract for Concrete
-All the rank and fashion came out to see the sight.
-The authorities put an end to the tumult.
-Youth is thoughtless.
-Her ladyship is out of town.

f. Material for the thing made
-The marble speaks.
-God and silver have I none.
-He was buried under this stone.
-He gave the man a few coppers to get rid of him.

Tuesday, 19 May 2015

Summary About English Literature in Fifteenth Century (1400-1485)

Henry V an able, shrewd and practical statements died in 1422, leaving the child Henry IV heir the throne. He was a helpless puppet in the hands of his nobles who quarelled among themselves for power. The French took advantages of the weakness of the English monarchy. The English found it difficult to face the rsing tide of nationalism in France. The France army headed by a peasant girl, Joan of Arc, succeeded in turning the English out of France. The defeated English armies returned home. Now thrown out of employment, they let loose a reign of terror in the country side the peasantry was often intimidated, coerced and robbed.

The confusion was worsen by the war of roses (1455-1485), which broke out soon after. It was a civil war for the throne of England, between the two houses of powerful noblemen – the Lancastrians and the Yorkists – who had a red and a white rose respectively as their symbol. The war continued for thirty long years. It was a period of social disorder resulted mainly from a strugle between landholders for more lands.

Literay Works


-John Skelton
a. The Book of Colin Cloure
b. Why Come You Not to Court
c. The Book of Sparrow

-John Lydgate
a. The Falls of Prionces
b. The temple Glow
c. Story of thebes

-Thomas Occleve
a. The Regement of Primcess
b. La Male Regle
c. The Complaint of Our Lady

-Stephen haws
a. the Passetyme of Pleasure
b. the Example of Virtue
c. The Conversion of Swerers
d. A Joyfull Medytalyon

Prose Writers

-Reginald Pecock
a. the Repressor of Over-Much Blaming of the Clergy
b. the Book of Faith

-William Caxton
William Caxton was the first printer in England. It would be difficult to overestimate the debt of English Literature to Caxton. He printed almost every English work of real quality known in his day; including Chaucer and Malory. In addition, he made and printed twenty-four translations from French, Dutch and Latin texts, of which the most remarkable were two earliest: The dictes and sayengis of the Philosophers. Recuyell of the History of Troye and Game and Playe of the Chesse.

-Sir Thomas More
a. utopia
b. The Life of John Picus

Other Prose Writers
Hugh Latimer and John Fisher like Thomas more, they were imprisoned due to their opposition to Henry VIII’s Reformation and later they were sentenced to death.

Monday, 18 May 2015

Figures of Speech Based on Similarity or Likeness

Figures of Speech Based on Similarity or Likeness can be divided into Simile, Metaphor, Personification, and Apostrophe.

Similie is a figure in which a comparison is made between two objects of different kinds which are alike at least in one point.

Examples of Simile:
-She is as strong as a lion.
-Elsa is like a lovely rose.

Metaphor is a figure in which there is comparison of one thing with another without the words like or as.

Examples of Metaphor:
-She is the lion of the battle.
-Ministers are the pillars of state.

Personification is a figure in which objects without life are spoken of as having the qualities of a human being.

Examples of Personification:
-The earth thirsts for rain, when it rains it smiles with plenty.
-Let not Ambition mock their useful toil.

Apostrophe is a figure by which the speaker addresses some inanimate thing or some abstract idea as if it were a living person or some absent person as if he were present.

Examples of Apostrophe:
-Come back to me, dear Cleopatra, in the pride of thy beauty.
-O Death, the poor man’s friend and the best.

Sunday, 17 May 2015

Old English Period Literature Summary

Background and Summary
The old period is a long one for it opens in the fifth century and does not conclude, as is often, with the Norman Conquest in 1066, but rather continues in prose at least till 1150. The events, however, must be dismissed briefly. The departure of the Roman in 410 left the British population open to inroads of the invaders from north. According to Bristish traditionsthe English from continent came first as mercenaries to help in defense agaist the Picts and Scots; but soon they began to settle in the country, and archeological evidence shows that certain permanent settlements had been made in the last quarter of the fifth century if not before. In the course of time they gained possession of all the land. Then followed the Christianizarion of pagan English tribes, beginning in Northumbria with the work of Irish miisionaries. Though the influence from Rome begins in Kent (597). In succession followed the inroads of Danes in the ninth century; the rise of Wesse among the early English Kingdoms with important contribution of Alfred the great; the establishment of Dane law in England with the permanent settlement of Danes in the country; the accession of a Danish King (1017) and the Norman influnce on the English court which began before the conquest in 1066.

Literay Works
Very little indeed is known of the origin of English literautre. It is important from the outset to remember that the extent remains of English litrature have cown down to us in late copies, some of which were made three hundred years after the composition of the poems themselves. And so far as the poets are concerned again very litltle or nothing is known beyond the names of two of them.

The name of the poem is continental Germanic, and it is likely, that it was the subject of lays long before its present version was composed. There is no mention of England and Beowulf himself is King of the ‘Geatas’. Though there is much in the poem which can be considered ‘Pagan’ and which suggests that the poem in origin maybe considered as such, the extent version was clearly written by a christian for Christianization.
In outline Beowulf may be said that Beowulf, son of Ecgtheow, sails to Denmark with a band of warriors and rids the Danish King Hrothgar of a terrible monster called Grendel. The mother of Grendel, seeking vengeance for the death of her son, meets the same fate and Beowulf, fittingly feasted and rewarded, returned to this native land. He becomes King of Geates and after a prosperous reign of some forty years slays a dragon which had ravaged his land, but in the fight he hismelf receives a moral wound. The poem concludes with the funeral ceremonies in honour of the dead hero.

The Pagan Poems
Most old English poery can be said to be “Christian” but a few pieces are distinctly secular. It would be better in many respects to refer to them as national rather than pagan.

-Widshit, usually considered to be the oldest poem in the language. It consists nearly 150 lines of verse, in which a traveler, nore imaginary than real, recount the places and illustrious people he has visited. The poem is of especial importance of historica point of view, but poetically it is of lttle merit.

-Waldare, consists of two fragments, some sixty three lines in all, telling of some of theexploits of Walter of Aquitaine. The work has vigour and power and it is to be gratly regretted that so little is preserved.

-The Fight at Finnsburh, is a fragment of some forty eight lines with a finely told description of the fighting at Finnsburh.

-The Battle of Brunanburh, is a spirited piece on the famous battle which took place in 937.

-The Battle of Maldon describes the battle which took place in 993, with emphasis on individual deeds of varlour and on the feelings of the warriors. It is particularly outstanding for sentiments expressed by those of aged Byrhwold.

-Elegies, these poems, among which are The Wanderer, The Seafarer, Wife’s Lament, and Husband’s Message appear in the Exeter Books.

The Caedmon Group
Caedmon wrote Genesis, Exodus, Daniel, and three shorter poems often considered as one under the title Christ and Satan are of unequal merit. As best they are strong and spirited with some gift of descriptive writing at worst they are tedious paraphrases of Biblical stories.

The Cynewulf Group
Four poems contain the signature of Cynewulf Christ in runic characters; Juliana, Elene, and the Fates of the Apostles. This is all that is known of the poet, though unfortunately it has not prevented critics from deducing additional facts about his life.


a. Alfred
Alfred began his seires of translations due to the lamentable state of English learning, largely the result of destrcution of Danes. The King in order to encourage learning among the clergy translated some popular books into his own tongue. These works are his contribution to English literature. The fine important literature are Pastoral, Care of Pope Gregory, The History of the World of Orosius, Bede’s Ecclesiastical History, Boethius, Consolation of Phylosophy and Soliloqueies of St. Augustine.

b. Aelfric
Several of his works are extant. The Catholic Homilies, Lines of the Saints and His Colloqucy are of great interest as a dialogue between master and pupils not only from literary but also from the historical point of view.

c. Wuflstan
He was Bishop of Worcester and Archbishop of York. His most famous piece is the sermo lupi Anglos. It is fluent and powerful; indeed wulfstan must have been a most brilliant preacher.

d. The Anglo Saxon Chronicle
This Chronicle was probably inspired by Alfred, who himself may well have dictated some of the entries more particularly those dealing with his own campaigns. It is extent in several manuscript.